NUML International Journal of Business & Management (NIJBM) ISSN 2410- 5392(Print) and 2521-473X (Online), previously known as NUML Journal of Management & Technology (NJMT) ISSN 1997-4507, was started in 2008 by the Faculty of Management Sciences-National University of Modern Languages (NUML), with the objective of creating a high-quality research journal, publishing original research work in the field of business and management. It is one of the recognized and better ranked research journals, in the field of business management, by Higher Education Commission (HEC) Pakistan. To ensure high quality publications, all papers submitted to NIJBM are subject to rigorous screening process following Double Blind Peer-Review where each research paper is reviewed by at least a national and an international reviewer with strong academic and research background in their areas of expertise. The journal is published biannually, both in soft and hard copy. NIJBM has a wide circulation nationally and internationally. The hard copies of each issue of the journal are distributed to universities, business professionals, practitioners, academicians, libraries, financial institutions and government organizations within Pakistan and some partner institutions internationally. It is an Open Access Journal and all published articles are available online on the journal’s website. The journal is devoted to the promotion and dissemination of quality knowledge in the field of business and management.